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    TIRES: EVERYTHING YOU NEED TO KNOW

    A tire (in American English and Canadian English) or tyre (in Commonwealth Nations such as UK, Australia, and others excluding Canada) is a ring-shaped covering that fits around a wheel rim to protect it and enables better vehicle performance by providing a flexible cushion that absorbs shock while keeping the wheel in close contact with the ground. The word itself may be derived from the word tie, which refers to the outer steel ring part of a wooden cart wheel that ties the wood segments together.

    The fundamental materials of modern tires are synthetic rubber, natural rubber, fabric and wire, along with other compound chemicals. They consist of a tread and a body. The tread provides traction while the body ensures support. Before rubber was invented, the first versions of tires were simply bands of metal that fitted around wooden wheels in order to prevent wear and tear. Today, the vast majority of tires are pneumatic inflatable structures, comprising a doughnut-shaped body of cords and wires encased in rubber and generally filled with compressed air to form an inflatable cushion.

    Rubber tires
    The first practical pneumatic tire was made by John Boyd Dunlop while working as a veterinarian in May Street, Belfast, in 1887 for his son's bicycle, in an effort to prevent the headaches his son had while riding on rough roads (Dunlop's patent was later declared invalid because of prior art by fellow Scot Robert William Thomson). Dunlop is credited with realizing rubber could withstand the wear and tear of being a tire while retaining its resilience. Pneumatic tires are made of a flexible elastomer material, such as rubber, with reinforcing materials such as fabric and wire. Tire companies were first started in the early 20th century, and grew in tandem with the auto industry. Today, over 1 billion tires are produced annually in over 400 tire factories.

    Manufacturing
    Pneumatic tires are manufactured according to relatively standardized processes and machinery, in around 450 tire factories in the world. Over 1 billion tires are manufactured annually, making the tire industry the majority consumer of natural rubber. In 2015 1.72 billion tires are expected to be sold globally. Tire factories start with bulk raw materials such as rubber, carbon black, and chemicals and produce numerous specialized components that are assembled and cured.

    In 2004, $80 billion of tires were sold worldwide, in 2010 it was $140 billion.

    Components

    Tread
    The tread is the part of the tire that comes in contact with the road surface. The portion that is in contact with the road at a given instant in time is the contact patch. The tread is a thick rubber, or rubber/composite compound formulated to provide an appropriate level of traction that does not wear away too quickly. The tread pattern is characterized by the geometrical shape of the grooves, lugs, voids and sipes. Grooves run circumferentially around the tire, and are needed to channel away water. Lugs are that portion of the tread design that contacts the road surface. Voids are spaces between lugs that allow the lugs to flex and evacuate water. Tread patterns feature non-symmetrical (or non-uniform) lug sizes circumferentially in order to minimize noise levels at discrete frequencies. Sipes are valleys cut across the tire, usually perpendicular to the grooves, which allow the water from the grooves to escape to the sides in an effort to prevent hydroplaning.

    Treads are often designed to meet specific product marketing positions. High performance tires have small void ratios to provide more rubber in contact with the road for higher traction, but may be compounded with softer rubber that provides better traction, but wears quickly. Mud and snow (M&S) tires are designed with higher void ratios to channel away rain and mud, while providing better gripping performance. Specialized tires will always work better than general/all purpose/all weather tires when being used in the conditions the specialized tires are designed for.
    • Street tires
      The grooves in the rubber are designed to allow water to be expelled from beneath the tire and prevent hydroplaning. The proportion of rubber to air space on the road surface directly affects its traction. Design of tire tread has an impact upon noise generated, especially at freeway speeds. Generally there is a trade-off of tread friction capability; deeper patterns often enhance safety, but simpler designs are less costly to produce and actually may afford some roadway noise mitigation. Tires intended for dry weather use will be designed with minimal pattern to increase the contact patch. Tires without any tread are known as slicks and are generally used for racing only, since they are quite dangerous if the road surface is wet.

      Street tires will also include wear limit indicators in the form of small raised bridges within the grooves. When the tread is worn down enough that the limit indicators make contact with the road, the tire is deemed to be at the end of its service life. Brake pads use similar indicators in the form of notches on their surface that disappear when they are used.

    • Off-road tires
      Off-road tires used in mud or dirt feature individual knob patterns to allow the tire to bite into the surface and lever the sides of the tread to get a better grip. Given the smaller contact patch, these tires tend to wear quickly when used on asphalt.

    Tread lug
    Tread lugs provide the contact surface necessary to provide traction. As the tread lug enters the road contact area, or footprint, it is compressed. As it rotates through the footprint it is deformed circumferentially. As it exits the footprint, it recovers to its original shape. During the deformation and recovery cycle the tire exerts variable forces into the vehicle. These forces are described as Force Variation.

    Tread void
    Tread voids provide space for the lug to flex and deform as it enters and exits the footprint. Voids also provide channels for rainwater, mud, and snow to be channeled away from the footprint. The void ratio is the void area of the tire divided by the entire tread area. Low void areas have high contact area and therefore higher traction on clean, dry pavement.

    Rain groove
    The rain groove is a design element of the tread pattern specifically arranged to channel water away from the footprint. Rain grooves are circumferential in most truck tires. Many high performance passenger tires feature rain grooves that are angled from the center toward the sides of the tire. Some tire manufacturers claim that their tread pattern is designed to actively pump water out from under the tire by the action of the tread flexing. This results in a smoother ride in different types of weather.

    Sipe
    Tread lugs often feature small narrow voids, or sipes, that improve the flexibility of the lug to deform as it traverses the footprint area. This reduces shear stress in the lug and reduces heat build up. Testing of identical siped and unsiped tires showed measurable improvements in snow traction and ice braking performance, however diminishing and extending braking distances on wet and dry pavement by a few feet on siped tires. Off-road Tire enthusiasts have been siping tires for years for greater traction, as many manufacturers now offer already siped off-road-tires.

    Wear bar
    Wear bars (or wear indicators) are raised features located at the bottom of the tread grooves that indicate the tire has reached its wear limit. When the tread lugs are worn to the point that the wear bars connect across the lugs, the tires are fully worn and should be taken out of service. Most wear bars indicate a remaining tread depth of 1.6 millimetres (0.063 in) and are deemed worn out at that point.

    Bead
    The bead is that part of the tire that contacts the rim on the wheel. The bead is typically reinforced with steel wire and compounded of high strength, low flexibility rubber. The bead seats tightly against the two rims on the wheel to ensure that a tubeless tire holds air without leakage. The bead fit is tight to ensure the tire does not shift circumferentially as the wheel rotates. The width of the rim in relationship to the tire is a factor in the handling characteristics of an automobile, because the rim supports the tire's profile.

    Sidewall
    The sidewall is that part of the tire that bridges between the tread and bead. The sidewall is largely rubber but reinforced with fabric or steel cords that provide for strength and flexibility. The sidewall transmits the torque applied by the drive axle to the tread in order to create traction. The sidewall, in conjunction with the air inflation, also supports the load of the vehicle. Sidewalls are molded with manufacturer-specific detail, government mandated warning labels, and other consumer information, and sometimes decorative ornamentation, like whitewalls.

    Shoulder
    The shoulder is that part of the tire at the edge of the tread as it makes transition to the sidewall.

    Ply
    Plies are layers of relatively inextensible cords embedded in the rubber to hold its shape by preventing the rubber from stretching in response to the internal pressure. The orientations of the plies plays a large role in the performance of the tire and is one of the main ways that tires are categorized.

    Construction types

    Bias
    Bias tire (or cross ply) construction utilizes body ply cords that extend diagonally from bead to bead, usually at angles in the range of 30 to 40 degrees, with successive plies laid at opposing angles forming a crisscross pattern to which the tread is applied. The design allows the entire tire body to flex easily, providing the main advantage of this construction, a smooth ride on rough surfaces. This cushioning characteristic also causes the major disadvantages of a bias tire: increased rolling resistance and less control and traction at higher speeds.

    Belted bias
    A belted bias tire starts with two or more bias-plies to which stabilizer belts are bonded directly beneath the tread. This construction provides smoother ride that is similar to the bias tire, while lessening rolling resistance because the belts increase tread stiffness. The plies and belts are at different angles, which improves performance compared to non-belted bias tires. The belts may be cord or steel.

    Radial
    Radial tire construction utilizes body ply cords extending from the beads and across the tread so that the cords are laid at approximately right angles to the centerline of the tread, and parallel to each other, as well as stabilizer belts directly beneath the tread. The belts may be cord or steel. The advantages of this construction include longer tread life, better steering control, and lower rolling resistance. Disadvantages of the radial tire include a harder ride at low speeds on rough roads and in the context of off-roading, decreased self-cleaning ability and lower grip ability at low speeds.
    • History
      A series of plies of cord reinforces a tire. Without this, a tire would be flexible and weak. The network of cords that gives the tire strength and shape is called the carcass. Since the 1960s, all common tires have a carcass of cords of polyester, steel, or other textile materials, inlaid with several layers of rubber.

      In the past, the fabric was built up on a flat steel drum, with the cords at angles of about +60 and ?60 degrees from the direction of travel, so they criss-crossed over each other. They were called cross-ply or bias ply tires. The plies were turned up around the steel wire beads and the combined tread/sidewall applied. The green (uncured) tire was loaded over a curing bladder and shaped into the mold. This shaping process caused the cords in the tire to assume an S shape from bead to bead. The angle under the tread stretched down to about 36 degrees. This was called the Crown Angle. In the sidewall region the angle was 45 degrees and in the bead it remained at 60 degrees. The low crown angle gave rigidity to support the tread and the high sidewall angle gave comfort.

      By comparison, radial tires lay all of the cord plies at 90 degrees to the direction of travel (that is, across the tire from lip to lip). This design avoids having the plies rub against each other as the tire flexes, reducing the rolling friction of the tire. This allows vehicles with radial tires to achieve better fuel economy than vehicles with bias-ply tires. It also accounts for the slightly low on air (bulging) look that radial tire sidewalls have, especially when compared to bias-ply tires.

      Because of its advantages, it has now become the standard design for essentially all automotive tires.

    • Construction
      With only radial cords, a radial tire would not be sufficiently rigid at the contact with the ground. To add further stiffness, the entire tire is surrounded by additional belts that are oriented along the direction of travel. These belts can be made of steel (hence the term steel-belted radial), Polyester, or Aramid fibers such as Twaron and Kevlar.

      In this way, low radial tires separate the tire carcass into two separate systems:
      • The radial cords in the sidewall allow it to act like a spring, giving flexibility and ride comfort.
      • The rigid steel belts reinforce the tread region, giving high mileage and performance.

      Each system can then be individually optimized for best performance.

    • Application
      Radial tires have different characteristics of springiness from those of bias-ply tires, and a different degree of slip while steering. Motorists were not accustomed to the feel, hence the suspension systems of cars had to be modified. Ford Motor Company engineer Jack Bajer experimented in the 1960s on a Ford Falcon, by giving it less tight steering, and adding both isolators to the drive shaft and bushings to the suspension, the latter being to absorb the thump of riding over asphalt expansion joints in a concrete roadway. Cars could now be made lighter because they would not have to make up for the deficiencies of bias-ply tires.

      Interestingly, the steel wires in radial tires become magnetic with use, and as they rotate a significant alternating magnetic field is created. It is quite measurable with an EMF meter close to the wheel well when the car is moving and is a spectrum of harmonic strengths from 10 to several hundred Hertz.

    Specifications

    Inflation pressure
    Tires are specified by the vehicle manufacturer with a recommended inflation pressure, which permits safe operation within the specified load rating and vehicle loading. Most tires are stamped with a maximum pressure rating. For passenger vehicles and light trucks, the tires should be inflated to what the vehicle manufacturer recommends, which is usually located on a decal just inside the driver's door or in the vehicle owners handbook. Tires should not generally be inflated to the pressure on the sidewall; this is the maximum pressure, rather than the recommended pressure. High performance and dynamic drivers often increase the tire pressure to near the maximum pressure as printed on the sidewall. This is done to sacrifice comfort for performance and safety. It is definitely very dangerous to allow tire pressure to drop below the recommended placard vehicle pressure, although this is commonly done temporarily when driving on sand to reduce chance of bogging. The reason for this is that it increases the amount of tire wall movement as a result of cornering forces. Should a low pressure tire be forced to perform an evasive maneuver, the tire wall will be more pliable than had it been of a higher pressure, and thus it will roll under the wheel. This increases the entire roll movement of the car, and diminishes tire contact area on the negative side of the vector. Thus only half the tire is in contact with the road, and the tire may deform to such an extent that the side wall on the positive vector side becomes in contact with the road. The probability of failing in the emergency maneuver is thus increased.

    Further, with low tire pressure—due to the side wall being more pliable—the tire will absorb more of the irregular forces from normal driving, and with this constant bending of the side wall as it absorbs the contours of the road, it heats up the tire wall to possibly dangerous temperatures, as well as degrades the steel wire reinforcement; this often leads to side wall blow-outs. In an extreme case of this phenomenon, the vehicle may drive into a pot-hole, or a hard elevation in the road. Due to the low tire pressure, the side wall at the contact area will temporarily collapse, thereby wedging the tire between the wheel and road, resulting in a tire laceration and blow-out, as well as a damaged wheel. High tire pressures are more inclined to keep its shape during any encounter, and will thus transmit the forces of the road to the suspension, rather than being damaged itself. This allows for an increased reaction speed, and feel the driver perceives of the road. Modern tire designs allow for minimal tire contact surface deformity during high pressures, and as a result the traditional wear on the center of the tire due to reasonably high pressures is only known to very old or poorly designed tires.

    Feathering occurs on the junction between the tire tread and side wall, as a result of too low tire pressures. This is as a result of the inability of the tire to perform appropriately during cornering forces, leading to aberrant and shearing forces on the feathering area. This is due to the tire moving sideways underneath the wheel as the tire pressures are insufficient to transmit the forces to the wheel and suspension. It may be, that very high tire pressures have only two downsides: The sacrifice in comfort; and the increased chance of obtaining a puncture when driving over sharp objects, such as on a newly scraped gravel road. Many individuals have maintained their tire pressures at the maximum side wall printed value (inflated when cold) for the entire lifetime of the tire, with perfect wear until the end. This may be of negative economic value to the rubber and tire companies, as high tire pressures decrease wear, and minimize side wall blow outs.

    Many pressure gauges available at fuel stations have been de-calibrated by manhandling and the effect of time, and it is for this reason that vehicle owners should keep a personal pressure gauge with them to validate the correct tire pressure.

    During the early stages of tire engineering, and with current basic tires, the tire contact patch is readily reduced by both over-and-under inflation. Over-inflation may increase the wear on the center contact patch, and under-inflation will cause a concave tread, resulting in less center contact. Most modern tires will wear evenly at very high tire pressures, but will degrade prematurely due to low (or even standard) pressures. An increased tire pressure has many benefits, including decreased rolling resistance. It has been found, that an increased tire pressure almost exclusively results in shorter stopping distances, except in some circumstances that may be attributed to the low sample size. If tire pressure is too low, the tire contact patch is changed more than if it were over-inflated. This decreases rolling resistance, tire flexing, and friction between the road and tire. Under-inflation can lead to tire overheating, premature tread wear, and tread separation in severe cases.

    Tires are not completely impermeable to air, and so lose pressure over time naturally. Some drivers inflate tires with nitrogen, instead of simple air, which is already 78% nitrogen, in an attempt to keep the tires at the proper inflation pressure longer, though the effectiveness of this is debatable.

    Load rating
    Tires are specified by the manufacturer with a maximum load rating. Loads exceeding the rating can result in unsafe conditions that can lead to steering instability and even rupture. For a table of load ratings, see tire code below.

    Speed rating
    The speed rating denotes the maximum speed at which a tire is designed to be operated. For passenger vehicles these ratings range from 99 to 186 miles per hour (159 to 299 km/h). For a table of speed ratings, see tire code below.

    Service rating
    Tires (especially in the U.S.) are often given service ratings, mainly used on bus and truck tires. Some ratings are for long haul, and some for stop-start multi-drop type work. Tires designed to run 500 miles (800 km) or more per day carrying heavy loads require special specifications.

    Treadwear rating
    The treadwear rating or treadwear grade describes how long the tire manufacturers expect the tire to last. A Course Monitoring Tire (the standard tire that a test tire will be compared to) has a rating of 100. If a manufacturer assigns a treadwear rating of 200 to a new tire, they are indicating that they expect the new tire to have a useful lifespan that is 200% of the life of a Course Monitoring Tire. The test tires are all manufacturer-dependent. Brand A's rating of 500 is not necessarily going to give you the same mileage rating as Brand B's tire of the same rating. The testing is non-regulated and can vary greatly. Treadwear ratings are only useful for comparing Brand A's entire lineup against itself. Tread wear, also known as tire wear, is caused by friction between the tire and the road surface. Government legal standards prescribe the minimum allowable tread depth for safe operation.

    Rotation
    Tires may exhibit irregular wear patterns once installed on a vehicle and partially worn. Furthermore, front-wheel drive vehicles tend to wear the front tires at a greater rate compared to the rears. Tire rotation is the procedure of moving tires to different car positions, such as front-to-rear, in order to even out the wear, thereby extending the life of the tire.

    Performance characteristics

    Balance
    When a wheel and tire rotate, they exert a centrifugal force on the axle that depends on the location of their center of mass and the orientation of their moment of inertia. This is referred to as balance, imbalance, or unbalance. Tires are checked at the point of manufacture for excessive static imbalance and dynamic imbalance using automatic tire balance machines. Tires are checked again in the auto assembly plant or tire retail shop after mounting the tire to the wheel. Assemblies that exhibit excessive imbalance are corrected by applying balance weights to the wheels to counteract the tire/wheel imbalance.

    To facilitate proper balancing, most high performance tire manufacturers place red and yellow marks on the sidewalls to enable the best possible match-mounting of the tire/wheel assembly. There are two methods of match-mounting high performance tire to wheel assemblies using these red (uniformity) or yellow (weight) marks.

    Camber thrust
    Camber thrust and camber force are terms used to describe the force generated perpendicular to the direction of travel of a rolling tire due to its camber angle and finite contact patch.

    Centrifugal growth
    A tire rotating at higher speeds tends to develop a larger diameter, due to centrifugal forces that force the tread rubber away from the axis of rotation. This may cause speedometer error. As the tire diameter grows, the tire width decreases. This centrifugal growth can cause rubbing of the tire against the vehicle at high speeds. Motorcycle tires are often designed with reinforcements aimed at minimizing centrifugal growth.

    Circle of forces
    The circle of forces, traction circle, friction circle, or friction ellipse is a useful way to think about the dynamic interaction between a vehicle's tire and the road surface.

    Contact patch
    The contact patch, or footprint, of the tire, is the area of the tread that is in contact with the road surface. This area transmits forces between the tire and the road via friction. The length-to-width ratio of the contact patch affects steering and cornering behavior.

    Cornering force
    Cornering force or side force is the lateral (i.e. parallel to the road surface) force produced by a vehicle tire during cornering.

    Dry traction
    Dry traction is measure of the tire’s ability to deliver traction, or grip, under dry conditions. Dry traction is a function of the tackiness of the rubber compound.

    Force variation
    The tire tread and sidewall elements undergo deformation and recovery as they enter and exit the footprint. Since the rubber is elastomeric, it is compressed during this cycle. As the rubber deforms and recovers, it imparts cyclical forces into the vehicle. These variations are collectively referred to as tire uniformity. Tire uniformity is characterized by radial force variation (RFV), lateral force variation (LFV) and tangential force variation. Radial and lateral force variation is measured on a force variation machine at the end of the manufacturing process. Tires outside the specified limits for RFV and LFV are rejected. Geometric parameters, including radial runout, lateral runout, and sidewall bulge, are measured using a tire uniformity machine at the tire factory at the end of the manufacturing process as a quality check. In the late 1990s, Hunter Engineering introduced the GSP9700 Road Force balancer, which is equipped with a load roller similar to the force variation machine used at the factory to grade tire uniformity. This machine can find the best position for the tire on a given wheel so that the over-all assembly is as round as possible.

    Load sensitivity
    Load sensitivity is the behaviour of tires under load. Conventional pneumatic tires do not behave as classical friction theory would suggest. Namely, the load sensitivity of most real tires in their typical operating range is such that the coefficient of friction decreases as the vertical load, Fz, increases.

    Pneumatic trail
    Pneumatic trail of a tire is the trail-like effect generated by compliant tires rolling on a hard surface and subject to side loads, as in a turn. More technically, it is the distance that the resultant force of side-slip occurs behind the geometric center of the contact patch.

    Relaxation length
    Relaxation length is the delay between when a slip angle is introduced and when the cornering force reaches its steady-state value.

    Rolling resistance
    Rolling resistance is the resistance to rolling caused by deformation of the tire in contact with the road surface. As the tire rolls, tread enters the contact area and is deformed flat to conform to the roadway. The energy required to make the deformation depends on the inflation pressure, rotating speed, and numerous physical properties of the tire structure, such as spring force and stiffness. Tire makers seek lower rolling resistance tire constructions in order to improve fuel economy in cars and especially trucks, where rolling resistance accounts for a high proportion of fuel consumption.

    Pneumatic tires also has a much lower rolling resistance than solid tires. Because the internal air pressure acts in all directions, a pneumatic tire is able to absorb bumps in the road as it rolls over them without experiencing a reaction force opposite to the direction of travel, as is the case with a solid (or foam-filled) tire. The difference between the rolling resistance of a pneumatic and solid tire is easily felt when propelling wheelchairs or baby buggies fitted with either type so long as the terrain has a significant roughness in relation to the wheel diameter.

    Self aligning torque
    Self aligning torque, also known as the aligning torque, SAT or Mz, is the torque that a tire creates as it rolls along that tends to steer it, i.e. rotate it around its vertical axis.

    Slip angle
    Slip angle or sideslip angle is the angle between a rolling wheel's actual direction of travel and the direction towards which it is pointing.

    Stopping distance
    Performance-oriented tires have a tread pattern and rubber compounds designed to grip the road surface, and so usually have a slightly shorter stopping distance. However, specific braking tests are necessary for data beyond generalizations.

    Work load
    The work load of a tire is monitored so that it is not put under undue stress, which may lead to its premature failure. Work load is measured in ton kilometre per hour (TKPH). The measurement's appellation and units are the same. The recent shortage and increasing cost of tires for heavy equipment has made TKPH an important parameter in tire selection and equipment maintenance for the mining industry. For this reason, manufacturers of tires for large earth-moving and mining vehicles assign TKPH ratings to their tires based on their size, construction, tread type, and rubber compound. The rating is based on the weight and speed that the tire can handle without overheating and causing it to deteriorate prematurely. The equivalent measure used in the United States is ton mile per hour (TMPH).

    Tread wear
    There are several types of abnormal tread wear. Poor wheel alignment can cause excessive wear of the innermost or outermost ribs. Gravel roads, rocky terrain, and other rough terrain causes accelerated wear. Over-inflation above the sidewall maximum can cause excessive wear to the center of the tread. Modern tires have steel belts built in to prevent this. Under-inflation causes excessive wear to the outer ribs. Often, the placard pressure is too low and most tires are under-inflated as a result. Unbalanced wheels can cause uneven tire wear, as the rotation may not be perfectly circular. Tire manufacturers and car companies have mutually established standards for tread wear testing that include measurement parameters for tread loss profile, lug count, and heel-toe wear.

    Wet traction
    Wet traction is the tire's traction, or grip, under wet conditions. Wet traction is improved by the tread design's ability to channel water out of the tire footprint and reduce hydroplaning. However, tires with a circular cross-section, such as those found on racing bicycles, when properly inflated have a sufficiently small footprint to not be susceptible to hydroplaning. For such tires, it is observed that fully slick tires will give superior traction on both wet and dry pavement.

    Markings

    DOT code
    In the United States, the DOT Code is an alphanumeric character sequence molded into the sidewall of the tire for purposes of tire identification. The DOT Code is mandated by the U.S. Department of Transportation. The DOT Code is useful in identifying tires in a product recall.

    The DOT Code begins with the letters DOT followed by a plant code (two numbers or letters) that identifies where it was manufactured. The last four numbers represent the week and year the tire was built. A three-digit code was used for tires manufactured before the year 2000. For example, 178 means it was manufactured in the 17th week of 8th year of the decade. In this case it means 1988. For tires manufactured in the 1990s, the same code holds true, but there is a little triangle after the DOT code. Thus, a tire manufactured in the 17th week of 1998 would have the code 178. In 2000, the code was switched to a 4-digit code. Same rules apply, so for example, 3003 means the tire was manufactured in the 30th week of 2003.

    Other numbers are marketing codes used at the manufacturer's discretion.

    E-mark
    All tires sold for road use in Europe after July 1997 must carry an E-mark. The mark itself is either an upper case E or lower case e – followed by a number in a circle or rectangle, followed by a further number. An (upper case) E indicates that the tire is certified to comply with the dimensional, performance and marking requirements of ECE regulation 30. A (lower case) e indicates that the tire is certified to comply with the dimensional, performance and marking requirements of Directive 92/23/EEC. The number in the circle or rectangle denotes the country code of the government that granted the type approval. The last number outside the circle or rectangle is the number of the type approval certificate issued for that particular tire size and type.

    Mold serial number
    Tire manufacturers usually embed a mold serial number into the sidewall area of the mold, so that the tire, once molded, can be traced back to the mold of original manufacturer.

    Vehicle applications

    Tires are classified into several standard types, based on the type of vehicle they serve. Since the manufacturing process, raw materials, and equipment vary according to the tire type, it is common for tire factories to specialize in one or more tire types. In most markets, factories that manufacture passenger and light truck radial tires are separate and distinct from those that make aircraft or OTR tires.

    Passenger vehicles and light truck

    High performance
    High performance tires are designed for use at higher speeds, and more often, a more sporty driving style. They feature a softer rubber compound for improved traction, especially on high speed cornering. The trade off of this softer rubber is shorter tread life.

    High performance street tires sometimes sacrifice wet weather handling by having shallower water channels to provide more actual rubber tread surface area for dry weather performance. The ability to provide a high level of performance on both wet and dry pavement varies widely among manufacturers, and even among tire models of the same manufacturer. This is an area of active research and development, as well as marketing.

    Mud and snow
    Mud and Snow, (or M+S, or M&S), is a designation applied rather arbitrarily by manufacturers for all-season and winter tires designed to provide improved performance under low temperature conditions, compared to summer tires. The tread compound is usually softer than that used in tires for summer conditions, thus providing better grip on ice and snow, but wears more quickly at higher temperatures. Tires may have well above average numbers of sipes in the tread pattern to grip the ice. There are no traction performance requirements which such a tire has to meet; M&S relates to the percentage of tread void area.

    Dedicated winter tires will bear the Mountain/Snowflake Pictograph if designated as a winter/snow tire by the American Society for Testing & Materials. Winter tires will typically also carry the designation MS, M&S, or the words MUD AND SNOW (but see All-season tires, below).

    Some winter tires may be designed to accept the installation of metal studs for additional traction on icy roads. The studs also roughen the ice, thus providing better friction between the ice and the soft rubber in winter tires. Use of studs is restricted in most countries with the notable exception of the Nordic countries where they are commonly used during the winter season outside metropolitan areas, and even prohibited in some locales due to the increased road wear caused by studs. Typically, studs are never used on heavier vehicles. The upper tier classes of ice racing[37] and rallying mandates the vehicles be equipped with studded tires.

    Other winter tires rely on factors other than studding for traction on ice, e.g. highly porous or hydrophilic rubber that adheres to the wet film on the ice surface.

    Some jurisdictions may require snow tires or tire chains on vehicles driven in certain areas during extreme weather conditions.

    Mud tires are speciality tires with large, chunky tread patterns designed to bite into muddy surfaces. The large, open design also allows mud to clear quickly from between the lugs. Mud terrain tires also tend to be wider than other tires, to spread the weight of the vehicle over a greater area to prevent the vehicle from sinking too deeply into the mud. However in reasonable amounts of mud and snow, tires should be thinner. Being thinner, the tire will have more pressure on the road surface, thus allowing the tires to penetrate the snow layer and grip harder snow or road surface beneath. This does not compensate when the snow is too deep for such penetration, where the vehicle will sink into the snow and plough the snow in front and eventually pack it beneath it until the wheels no longer have traction. In this case, wider tires are preferred, as they have a larger contact patch and are better able to float on top of the mud or snow.

    All season
    The All Season tire classification is a compromise between one developed for use on dry and wet roads during summer and one developed for use under winter conditions. The type of rubber and the tread pattern best suited for use under summer conditions cannot, for technical reasons, give good performance on snow and ice. The all-season tire is a compromise, and is neither an excellent summer tire nor an excellent winter tire. They have, however, become ubiquitous as original and replacement equipment on automobiles marketed in the United States, due to their convenience and their adequate performance in most situations. Even so, in other parts of the world, like Germany, it is common to have a designated tire set for winter and summer. All-Season tires are also marked for mud and snow the same as winter tires but rarely with a snowflake. Owing to the compromise with performance during summer, winter performance is usually poorer than a winter tire.

    All-terrain
    All-terrain tires are typically used on SUVs and light trucks. These tires often have stiffer sidewalls for greater resistance against puncture when traveling off-road, the tread pattern offers wider spacing than all-season tires to remove mud from the tread. Many tires in the all-terrain category are designed primarily for on-road use, particularly all-terrain tires that are originally sold with the vehicle.

    Spare
    Some vehicles carry a spare tire, already mounted on a wheel, to be used in the event of flat tire or blowout. Minispare, or space-saver spare tires are smaller than normal tires to save on trunk/boot space, gas mileage, weight, and cost. Minispares have a short life expectancy and a low speed rating, often below 60 miles per hour (97 km/h).

    Run-flat
    Several innovative designs have been introduced that permit tires to run safely with no air for a limited range at a limited speed. These tires typically feature strong, load-supporting sidewalls. An infamous example of an alternate run-flat technology has plastic load-bearing inserts attached to the rim instead of the reinforced sidewalls.

    A disadvantage is that run-flat tires cannot be repaired if a puncture occurs, this is due to manufacturer's informing the automotive industry that you cannot tell what kind of state the sidewall is in due to the compacted sidewall of rubber.

    Racing
    Racing tires are highly specialized according to vehicle and race track conditions. This classification includes tires for drag racing, Auto-x, drifting, Time Attack, Road Racing – as well as the large-market race tires for Formula One, IndyCar, NASCAR, rallying, MotoGP and the like. Tires are specially engineered for specific race tracks according to surface conditions, cornering loads, and track temperature. Racing tires often are engineered to minimum weight targets, so tires for a 500 miles (800 km) race may run only 100 miles (160 km) before a tire change. Some tire makers invest heavily in race tire development as part of the company's marketing strategy and a means of advertising to attract customers.

    Racing tires often are not legal for normal highway use.

    Safety
    Proper vehicle safety requires specific attention to inflation pressure, tread depth, and general condition of the tires. Over-inflated tires run the risk of explosive decompression (they may pop). On the other hand, under-inflated tires have a higher rolling resistance and suffer from overheating and rapid tread wear particularly on the edges of the tread. Excessive tire wear will reduce steering and braking response,[citation needed] and tires worn down past their safety margins and into the casing run the very real risk of rupturing. Also, certain combinations of cross ply and radial tires on different wheels of the same vehicle can lead to vehicle instability, and may also be illegal. Vehicle and tire manufacturers provide owners' manuals with instructions on how to check and maintain tires.

    Flat
    A flat tire occurs when a tire deflates. This can occur as a result of normal wear-and-tear, a leak, or more serious damage. A tire that has lost sufficient pressure will impair the stability of the vehicle and may damage the tire further if it is driven in this condition. The tire should be changed and/or repaired before it becomes completely flat. Continuing to drive a vehicle with a flat tire will damage the tire beyond repair, possibly damage the rim and vehicle, and put the occupants and other vehicles in danger. A flat tire or low-pressure tire should be considered an emergency situation, requiring immediate attention. Some tires, known as run-flat tires, have either extremely stiff sidewalls or a resilient filler to allow driving a limited distance while flat, usually at reduced speed, without permanent damage or hazard.

    A modern radial tire may not be visibly distorted even with dangerously low inflation pressure. (This is especially true of tires with a low aspect ratio, sometimes known as low profile tires.) Thus maintenance of adequate tire pressure can have important safety implications despite the fact that most car owners neglect it. Tire designers have tried to make new tires fail-safe so that the failure of the operator to maintain the tire pressure won't cause a major safety concern, but there are limitations on this.

    Hydroplaning (or aquaplaning)
    Hydroplaning, also known as aquaplaning, is the condition where a layer of water builds up between the tire and road surface. Hydroplaning occurs when the tread pattern cannot channel away enough water at an adequate rate to ensure a semi-dry footprint area. When hydroplaning occurs, the tire effectively floats above the road surface on a cushion of water – and loses traction, braking and steering, creating a very unsafe driving condition. When hydroplaning occurs, there is considerably less responsiveness of the steering wheel. The correction of this unsafe condition is to gradually reduce speed, by merely lifting off the accelerator/gas pedal.

    Hydroplaning becomes more prevalent with wider tires (because of the lower weight per contact area) and especially at higher speeds; it is of virtually no concern to bicycle tires under normal riding conditions largely because of the lower speeds. The chance of car hydroplaning is also minimal at bicycle speeds as the weight per contact area of car tires is not much lower if any than bicycle tires.

    Dangers of aged tires
    Research and tests show that as tires age, they begin to dry out and become potentially dangerous, even if unused. Aged tires may appear to have similar properties to newly manufactured tires, but rubber degrades over time, and once the vehicle is traveling at high speeds (i.e. on a freeway) the tread could peel off, leading to severe loss of control. In tropical climates, such as Singapore, tires degrade sooner than in temperate climates, and more care should be taken in these climates to ensure that tires do not fail.[citation needed] Also, tires on seldom-used trailers are at the greatest risk of age-failure, but some tires are built to withstand idleness, usually with nylon reinforcement.

    Many automakers recommend replacing tires after six years, and several tire manufacturers have called for tires to be removed from service 10 years after the date of manufacture

    Asymmetric tire
    An asymmetric tire is a term used to describe some specific stabilization methods used in cars.

    Tire tread
    An asymmetric tire may refer to a tire whose tread pattern does not form in line symmetry or point symmetry vis-a-vis its central line, thus having a distinct inside and outside edge. They may be mounted on either side of the vehicle. Since the tread pattern of many ordinary tires do not form symmetry in relation to design or pattern noise, the method of mounting tires is specially prescribed. This type of tires is used in many cases to promote tire performance, braking performance, and turning performance, since tread contact changes according to the change in alignment during travel.

    Tires may also be directional, where the tread pattern favors operation in one direction. This usually takes the form of v-shaped grooves that help to disperse water from the center to the edge of the tread. Symmetric directional tires can be used on both sides, but once mounted on a rim cannot be moved to the other side, since the tread pattern will be in the wrong direction. This restricts tire rotation. Some directional tires are also asymmetric, in which case there will be specific left and right-handed versions.

    Stabilizing belts
    An asymmetric tire may refer to a passenger car radial tire in which asymmetric structure stabilizing belts are built. Generally the stabilizing belts give a self-aligning torque when a motor vehicle is running straight ahead as well as when it is cornering. However, the sidewalls of the radial tire are so flexible that there will be a delay in the lateral reaction between the tread of the tire and the rim of its wheel as the vehicle is being steered positively. The lateral force will be transmitted from the front wheel to the rear of the vehicle, which will tend to be steered off course. Whereas the asymmetric belts bring a gradual change in the lateral displacement of the tire tread corresponding to the rim while the cornering load grows. The progressive change will harden the sidewalls to produce an immediate response to steering, which results in safer driving.